Covid-19 is an acronym for Corona-virus Disease 2019. Corona viruses are a large family of viruses that are common worldwide. They can cause respiratory diseases in humans and animals. This is from China in late 2019 in Wuhan City. In the past two decades, corona virus epidemics have caused worldwide concern, including one in 2003 with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and more recently in 2012 with Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

Covid-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that can trigger what doctors call a respiratory infection. It can affect the upper respiratory tract, viz. sinus, nose and throat or lower respiratory tract, viz. trachea and lungs. Severe cases can lead to severe respiratory illness and even pneumonia.

On January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the Covid-19 epidemic a global health emergency. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared it a global pandemic.

Risk Factor’s –

Here are the risk factors that can predispose people to Covid-19 infection:

65 and Over –

People over 65 are at increased risk of Covid-19 infection due to their reduced immunity. They are more likely to have certain associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, the course of the disease tends to be more severe in them, resulting in higher mortality. However, its transmission among the elderly population can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures.

Chronic Lung Disease & Asthma:

People with asthma are more likely to get Covid-19. Hospital data shows that respiratory patients are more likely to experience serious complications. Since there is still no cure, the best action people can take is to protect themselves from infection. The same is true for other chronic lung diseases.

Severe Heart Conditions:

Covid-19 causes direct damage to the lungs and triggers an inflammatory response, which puts pressure on the cardiovascular system in two ways, viz. By infecting the lungs, oxygen levels in the blood decrease and the inflammatory effects of the virus also cause a decrease in blood pressure. In such cases, the heart has to beat faster and harder to supply oxygen to the major organs.

According to the European Cardiovascular Society, people with heart conditions such as heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, advanced forms of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease are at increased risk.

Severe Obesity:

There are an increasing number of reports that have linked obesity to a more serious Covid-19 infection and death. Obesity reduces the protective cardiorespiratory reserves and weakens the immune regulation which seems to facilitate the progression towards the critical stage of the disease.

Researchers found that among people with Covid-19 under the age of 60 in New York, those whose BMI was between 30-34 kg / m2 and more than 35 kg / m2 were 1.8 times and 3 , 6 times more likely to be admitted in critical condition, respectively, than people with a BMI less than 30 Kg / m2.

A new study published in 2020 in Diabetes Care concluded that Covid-19 patients are two and a half times more likely to have severe pneumonia if they are obese than if they are not. Obesity leads to a chronic inflammatory condition. Whether obesity is an independent risk factor for susceptibility to infection requires further consideration.


Diabetes is a risk factor for hospitalization and mortality from Covid-19 infection. Diabetics have an altered immune response to infection relative to the profile of cytokines and changes in immune responses, including T cells and activation of macrophages. Poor glycemic control alters various aspects of the immune response to a viral infection and also to a possible secondary bacterial infection in the lungs. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for Covid-19 infection and its side effects. Therefore, the importance of strict glycemic control in diabetics cannot be overlooked.

Chronic Kidney Disease:

People with chronic kidney disease have an increased risk of infection. People on dialysis may have a weaker immune system, making it hard to fight the infection. However, kidney patients should continue their regularly scheduled dialysis treatments and take the necessary precautions recommended by their healthcare practitioner.

People with kidney transplants should take anti-rejection drugs, also known as immunosuppressive drugs, which keep the immune system less active.

Liver Disease:

All patients with liver disease are at risk for undesirable viral results. In addition, some people with certain liver diseases are extremely vulnerable. They include people who are immunosuppressed for liver transplantation or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and people with liver cancer receiving active chemotherapy.

Immunol Compromised People:

A person of any age group can be immunologically compromised. Conditions that can lead to immunodeficiency in a person include cancer treatment, smoking, bone marrow or organ transplant, immune deficiencies, poorly controlled AIDS and long-term use of corticosteroids and others immunosuppressive drugs.

There are reports that in some Covid-19 patients, death is most likely due to a cytokine storm, when the immune system overdrives, damaging even healthy tissue, which can lead to multiple organ failure , sepsis and even death. .


Some people are at high risk of getting a serious infection if they get Covid-19. Everyone must take steps to protect themselves and others against contraction or spread. But people belonging to a high-risk category must take all the necessary precautions to protect themselves.